Glossary of Dental Terms

Abrasion – Wear on a tooth caused by brushing too hard, holding things in your teeth, and other actions.

Amalgam – A mixture of different metals such as mercury, silver, tin, and copper that’s used to fill cavities.

Band – A metal ring put around a tooth with cement as part of orthodontic treatment.

Bicuspid – A tooth that has two cusps, or pointed areas on top.

Bitewing-  An X-ray of the crowns of the upper and lower molars when biting down.

Bonding – A tooth-colored resin material applied to a tooth to change its shape or color. It also describes how a filling or orthodontic bracket sticks to the tooth.

Bridge –  An appliance that attaches an artificial tooth or teeth to the teeth next to it.

Bruxism – An unconscious habit of grinding or clenching of the teeth which often happens when a person is sleeping or during the day.

Buccal – Of or near the inside surface of the cheeks or surfaces of the teeth or restorations directed toward the cheeks.

Calculus (tartar) – A hard deposit of minerals coated with bacterial plaque that can build up on the teeth and cause gums to get inflamed. It’s scraped off when a dentist cleans your teeth.

Caries – Areas of tooth decay

Cavity – An area of a tooth that’s damaged due to caries.

Cementum – The thin, hard tissue that covers the root of a tooth.

Composite – A tooth-colored material used to repair teeth that’s made of several types of substances.

Crown – The top part of the tooth that’s covered with enamel. Also, an artificial cover for a tooth to repair it, or restore it to its normal shape and size after a root canal or other dental work.

Cusp – One of the pointed parts on the top of a tooth.

Dental floss – Thin strands of material used to clean between the teeth and around the gums at home.

Dentin – The substance underneath the enamel on the top of a tooth, and under the cementum at the root.

Dry socket – Pain and inflammation in a tooth socket after the tooth is removed.

Enamel – The hard, calcium-rich surface on the crown of a tooth.

Endodontist – A specialist who treats problems of the tooth nerve (pulp) or infections in the bone associated with infected nerves with procedures such as root canal.

Extraction – The removal of all or part of a tooth.

Filling – Material that’s used to repair a damaged area of a tooth. It can be made of metals, plastic, or porcelain.

Fluoride – A remineralization material which can be administered in the form of a rinse, a gel/paste, or a foam which helps prevent tooth decay by making the tooth more resistant to acid attacks from plaque bacteria and sugars in the mouth. It also reverses early decay.

Gingiva – The soft tissues around the teeth. Also called gums.

Gingivitis – An early form of gum disease where the gums are inflamed and become red, swollen, and bleed easily. It’s usually caused by plaque buildup.

Impacted tooth – A tooth that’s blocked from coming up through the gums by another tooth, bone, or soft tissue.

Implant – A device that’s put into the jaw bone to hold a prosthesis such as a crown or bridge.

Lingual – Of or near the tongue.

Malocclusion – When the upper and lower teeth aren’t lined up well in order to bite and chew properly.

Mandible-The lower jaw.

Maxilla – The upper jaw.

Molars – The large teeth near the back of the jaws that are used for grinding food.

Mouthguard – A removable device that a person wears over their teeth to protect them from damage during sports.

Nightguard/Bite Plane – A removable device that a person wears over their teeth at night to protect them from damage due to bruxism.

Occlusion – The contact between the upper and lower teeth in order to bite and chew.

Orthodontist – A type of dentist that works to correct the position of teeth with braces and other tools.

Palate – The hard and soft tissues that form the roof of the mouth.

Periodontal pocket – A deep area between a tooth and gum that’s the result of gum disease.

Periodontist – A dentist who specializes in treating the tissues that surround the teeth.

Periodontitis (periodontal disease) – A severe infection of the gums that occurs when gingivitis gets worse. It can cause the gums and bones that support the teeth to break down. Teeth can then loosen and fall out.

Plaque – A sticky film of bacteria and other substances that coat the teeth every day. Brushing and flossing help remove plaque. If not removed regularly, plaque can lead to gum disease.

Prosthesis – An artificial replacement of a tooth or teeth.

Pulp – The soft tissue inside the tooth that has blood vessels and nerves.

Restoration (Filling) – A kind of treatment that repairs or replaces teeth.

Retainer – A removable device that’s worn in the mouth to prevent teeth from moving out of position.

Root canal – A treatment that removes the tooth nerve (pulp) and seals the space formerly occupied by the nerve with an inert material. A crown is recommended to cover the tooth to prevent it from breaking.

Root planning – Cleaning of a tooth root to remove bacteria, calculus, and diseased surfaces.

Root – The bottom part of the tooth that anchors it in the jaw and is covered by bone and the gums.

Scaling – A procedure that uses tools to remove plaque, tartar, and stains from teeth.

Sealant – A plastic resin that can be put on the biting surfaces of back teeth to help prevent caries.

Sublingual – Under the tongue.

Submandibular – Below the lower jaw.

Tartar (calculus) – A hard deposit of minerals coated with bacterial plaque that can build up on the teeth and cause gums to get inflamed. It’s scraped off when a dentist cleans your teeth.

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) – The joint that connects the lower jaw to the skull.

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction – Pain, clicking, and other symptoms that are cause by problems with the temporomandibular joint and the associated muscles.

Veneer – A thin, artificial cover for a tooth to correct its shape or color. It’s made to look and feel like a real tooth. Veneers can be made of porcelain, ceramic, composite, or acrylic resin.

X-ray – An image of bones, teeth and restorations made with radiation.